A discussion of First Amendment Implications of the Trademark Registration
consumer search costs. TMs don’t exist
in the abstract—have to be associated w/ a good or service. Apple = TM for computers, not fruit. In the US, right to use doesn’t depend on
registration, but on qualifying use in commerce. ® has many benefits, but you don’t have to
register in order to claim rights.
application. Application usually takes
2.8 months to be examined—about 480 examiners now. Allowed = publication; denied = appeal to
TTAB or abandoned. Opposition also
possible to TTAB after publication. From
the TTAB, can appeal to the district court or Federal Circuit.
over and trying to figure out what bucket to put them in: a shoe design—©, TM,
design patent. Examiner is target of
these issues and your job is to figure out which submissions qualify, over and
over, like grading papers.
Examine all the record, including dictionaries and internet. Office Action attached dictionary definitions
that said “dyke” was disparaging for lesbians. Note that Office is very busy
and inter partes record will be very different—mostly looking at internet and
making best judgment possible. Is it
completely subjective? No. Evidence is required, and examiners are
trained to determine what’s refusal-worthy.
TMEP says senior or managing atty must consult on scandalousness
refusal: always a review process for those.
term. Examining att’y issued a final
rejection and applicant requested reconsideration/filed notice of appeal to
TTAB. The refusal was withdrawn. Opposition occurred with publication; TTAB
rejected the opposition on standing grounds; court of appeals agreed w/TTAB, so
6% of PTO as a whole.
disparagement refusals, 42 final actions; 902 first actions for
immoral/scandalous, 158 final actions.
2012 alone: 2071 first actions for deceptiveness; 224 final actions
(though now we issue more warnings instead of first action refusals). Most common 2(a) refusal is deceptiveness. Most common issue is ID of goods making the
says leather in the mark but the goods listed are all clothes, we now ask for
amendment; if they don’t amend they are refused.
general public. PTO looks at the overall
context, not just the applied-for mark. TITMOUSE
as mark for clothing with birds on it = ok; TITMOUSE as mark for computer mouse
in the shape of a human breast = not ok.
THE SLANTS = material submitted with the application had all sorts of
matter, and is it likely to be disparaging/offensive to a substantial composite
of the reference group, except with corporations because corporations can’t
take offense. KHORAN for wines:
association of alcohol with Muslim religion.
SQUAW and SQUAW VALLEY = disparaging for clothes but not ski
assessed by the views of the relevant group (general public or targeted group,
depending) at the time of the application.
a misconception that people have.
Washington team’s marks—long time registered, compared to In re Tam
where the examiner denied registrations.
Can be challenges at any stage on several grounds. Vast majority of applications fly right
through. Clients don’t like paying extra
money for holdups with examination—many think it should be like going down to
the courthouse to get a marriage license or dog license; since they’re using
the mark, why aren’t they entitled to a registration? Even big firms that understand the issues don’t
want to pay extra.
and other construction equipment. VERSA
TRACTION w/tagline cited against it, but it’s for surfboards; we argue that no
one will confuse duct tape w/tape used by surfers. Client wants CHUCS for clothing, and CHUCK
TAYLOR from Converse is an issue. Another wants to move a Middle East chain
using a surname, but surnames require secondary meaning. Luchese cowboy boots: no problem w/new
registrations b/c known, but every time we need a disclaimer that it’s a
surname but has so much secondary meaning that it’s a mark.
is subjective, and you have to make a judgment call. You can’t say no to your
cigarette); offensive in UK/not so bad here (bloody for bad). What about remaining Native American symbols
on the register? Land O’Lakes Native
American; Sue Bee honey; Mutual of Omaha; etc.
It’s all contextual. RED MAN
chewing tobacco? Famous in the field/big
seller. Not sure it would get through
today, but registered. A number of other
registrations that may be offensive: NWA for the rap group (but its full name,
no; never tried, as far as he can tell and many n-word attempts have failed,
except for very old registrations that have been abandoned); DAGO RED for
clothing; POLOCK JOHNNY’s restaurant; PUSSY POWER REVOLUTION for clothing. These
might be gone in a few decades (actually my searches suggest DAGO RED and PUSSY
POWER REVOLUTION are already gone).
fight on this? Typical client doesn’t
want this fight, and will generally turn away.
Many sports teams have moved away from Native American images,
especially caricatures. Even the
Washington team has a plan for change if it has any sense.
number of offensive ones out there.
registration, but GAMECOCK SUCKER allowed, as was BIG COQ, and COCK RUB. A lot of criticism of the subjective nature
of the determinations/inconsistent outcomes.
What was scandalous 50 years ago may no longer be scandalous—BUBBY TRAP for
bras. Judge in context of marketplace in
context of goods described in application, from perspective of substantial
composite of general public.
Disparaging marks: Fed. Cir. adopted TTAB test in STOP THE ISLAMIZATION OF
AMERICA. First determine the meaning of
the mark: a religious or political meaning; either way it was disparaging to a
substantial composite of Muslim-Americans.
Look at dictionary definitions; relation of matter to other elements of
the mark; nature of goods/services; manner in which mark is used in the marketplace. If that meaning is found to refer to
identifiable persons, institutions, beliefs, or national symbols, whether that
meaning may be disparaging to a substantial composite of the referenced group.
Context includes entirety of mark’s impression, expected commercial use,
whether the secondary meaning supports primary meaning, time of application,
views of population targeted. Don’t
consider identity of the applicant or intent of applicant. Don’t consider audience/relevant consumers.
provide offense or remove it.
not disparaging in the abstract, but in context of alcohol. JESUS JEANS?
The ads for the company are highly sexualized, but also play up the
religious meaning in a deliberately provocative way. JESUS JEANS registered in the US, then opposed
an application for JESUS SURFED. JESUS
SURFED is an evangelical Christian clothing company, so it sought to cancel
JESUS JEANS on disparagement grounds.
Tried to bring in the ads to provide context. PTO doesn’t want to decide who really
according to Harjo; dispute over who gets to determine what the term means.
Should it be reclaimed? Opposed? Loretta
Lynn dressed as an “Indian” for her album “Your Squaw is on the Warpath.” “Squaw Bread”—said they didn’t mean to offend
b/c it was just called “squaw bread”/they wanted to give credit to Native
American origin. Squaw Valley: ski
location/sought marks. Split decision
because of the context of the goods.
Similar case: HEEB—magazine had a registration for the magazine, but
applied for clothing, unhinged from the particular context of the magazine, it
was found to be disparaging. TTAB found
it irrelevant that the applicant was Jewish or well-intentioned. Relevant community was important.
submitted 400 pages of evidence proving that it wasn’t just intent to reclaim or
good intent, but that the reclaiming had happened and now had positive
context and the attempt to “own” the stereotype proved irrelevant good
intentions and relevant connection to Asianness. Their first specimens of use had Asian
symbols, fonts. The second application,
after abandoning the first, included only specimens that didn’t have obvious “Asian”
indicators—they were posters for concerts the Slants played at though not
designed by the Slants. Examiner looked
at the older specimens too and still refused the registration. Recent album: “The Yellow Album.” Fed. Cir. recently reheard en banc.
ongoing. Team wanted EDVa. because the
trend in the Fed. Cir. didn’t look good.
NFL is footing the bill, so the team has limited incentive to stop just
because it’s expensive. Initial
evidentiary problems: much the evidence didn’t go to the reference group, but
to Americans generally. Is less than ½ of
the group finding it disparaging sufficient?
Her answer: yes, given what percentages are accepted in TM infringement
cases. Also, the evidence didn’t go to
what Native Americans thought at the time the registrations issued. Survey would have required a time machine! Also, asked about offense instead of
times. After 1966, “redskins” is a slur any time it’s used. Suggests that over time, understanding of
majority groups about how awful it was changed.
Actions that Native Americans took during the relevant time period—meetings
w/team, organized protests, had a resolution, formal objections: that’s the
most relevant. Is it substantial? Team said: just the leaders thought this, not
the general population—can’t prove leaders represent the whole of the
group. That’s an impossible task.
cartoon about the meeting and protest.
Wasn’t unhinged from racial references also used w/ the team names. Team
suggests now that the name change from Boston Braves honored a Native American
head coach, but at the time they said that wasn’t the reason for changing the
name and also he was not a Native American.
team to integrate by far; set up a foundation for DC children, but said couldn’t
be used for any support of racial integration. His wife came up with the theme
song, which was the first team theme song; it is awful.
potatoes have been refused since 1992.
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